New Book: Carbohydrates Can Kill

Dr. Robert K. Su has a new book titled Carbohydrates Can Kill.  This book is now published and available for order.  Dr. Su has organized a reading list of 1,163 articles in 22 categories available at including many about diabetes.


The following research references are provided from the diabetes mellitus section alone:

221.      Eizirik DL, Korbutt GS, and Hellerström C. “Prolonged exposure of human pancreatic islets to high glucose concentrations in vitro impairs the beta-cell function.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Volume 90, Number 4, Pages 1263–1268. October 1992.

222.      Frederici M, et al. “High Glucose Causes Apoptosis in Cultured Human Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans.” Diabetes. Volume 50, Number 6, Pages1290-1301, 2001.

223.      Boden G, et al. “Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.”Annals of Internal Medicine, Volume 142, Number 6, Pages 403-11. March 15, 2005.

224.      Basciano H, Federico L, and Adeli K. “Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia.” Nutrition & Metabolism, (Lond). 2005; Volume 2, Number 5, and online February 21. 2005.

225.      Maedler K, et al. “Glucose-induced b cell production of IL-1b contributes to glucotoxicity in human pancreatic islets.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Volume 110, Number 6, Pages 851–860. September 15, 2002.

226.      Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, and Liu S. “Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (1,2,3) Volume 79, Number 5, 774-779, May 2004.

227.      Gannon MC and Nuttal FQ. “Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People With Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes, Volume 53, Number 9, Pages 2375-2382. 2004.

228.      Nuttall FQ and Gannon MC. “The metabolic response to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in men with type 2 iabetes mellitus.” Metabolism. Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 243-251. February 2006.

229.      Gannon MC and Nuttal FQ. “Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition.” Nutrition and Metabolism. Volume 3, Number 1, Pages 16. 2006.

230.      Ruderman N, et al. “The metabolically obese, normal-weight individual revisited.” Diabetes, Volume 47, Number 5, Pages 699-713. May 1988.

231.      Freedland ES. “Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review.” Nutrition & Metabolism, (Lond). Volume Number 12. 2004. Published online November 5. 2004.

232.      Stratton IM, el al. “Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study.” British Medical Journal (BMJ). Volume 321, Number 7258, Pages 405–412. August 12, 2000.

233.      Kritchevsky SB and Kritchevsky D. “Egg Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease: An Epidemiologic Overview.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Volume 19, Number 90005, 549S-555S (2000).

234.      Arora SK and McFarlane SI. “The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management.” Nutrition & Metabolism, (Lond), 2005; Volume 2, Number 16. 2005. Published online 2005 July 14.

235.      Nielsen JV and Joensson E. “Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up.” Nutrition & Metabolism, (Lond), Volume 3, Number 22. 2006 Published online June 14, 2006.

236.      Agnieszka K. “ISLET AMYLOID - A CULPRIT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES.” The Science Creative Quarterly., Issue 2, September-November 2006.

237.      Meyer C, et al. “Different mechanisms for impaired fasting glucose and impaired postprandial glucose tolerance in humans.” Diabetes Care.Volume 29, Number 8, Pages 1909-14. August 2006.

238.      Lee AT, Reis D and Eriksson UJ. ”Hyperglycemia-induced embryonic dysmorphogenesis correlates with genomic DNA mutation frequency in vitro and in vivo.”  Diabetes, Vol 48, Issue 2 371-376.

239.      Wentzel P, Ejdesjö A and Eriksson UJ. “Maternal Diabetes In Vivo and High Glucose In Vitro Diminish GAPDH Activity in Rat Embryos.” Diabetes. Volume 52, Number 5, Pages 1222-1228, 2003.

240.      Poitout V, et al. “Chronic Exposure of TC-6 Cells to Supraphysiologic Concentrations of Glucose Decreases Binding of the RIPE3b1 Insulin Gene Transcription Activator.” Journal of Clinical Investigation. Volume 97, Number 4, Pages 1041-1046. February 1996.

241.      Ahmad N, et al. “Glycated and Oxidized Protein Degradation Products Are Indicators of Fasting and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetes.”Diabetes Care. Volume 28, Number 10, Pages 2465-2471. 2005.

242.      Schulz M, et al. “Is the Association Between Dietary Glycemic Index and Type 2 Diabetes Modified by Waist Circumference?” Diabetes Care. Volume 29, Number 5, Pages 1102-1104, 2006.

243.      Shaw JE, et al. “Isolated post-challenge hyperglycaemia confirmed as a risk factor for mortality.” Diabetologia. Volume 42, Number 9, Pages 1050-4. September 1999.

244.      Stride A, et al. “Intrauterine Hyperglycemia Is Associated With an Earlier Diagnosis of Diabetes in HNF-1 Gene Mutation Carriers.” Diabetes Care. Volume 25, Number 12, Pages 2287-2291, 2002.

245.      Dabelea D. “The Predisposition to Obesity and Diabetes in Offspring of Diabetic Mothers.” Diabetes Care. Volume 30. Pages S169-S174, 2007.

246.      Chari ST, et al. “Probability of Pancreatic Cancer Following Diabetes: A Population-Based Study.” Gastroenterology. Volume 129, Number 2, Pages 504-511. August 2005.

247.      Tanaka Y, et al. “A role for glutathione peroxidase in protecting pancreatic b cells against oxidative stress in a model of glucose toxicity.” Proceedings of the National Academy of  Science of the United States of America. Volume 99, Number 19, Pages 12363–12368. September 17, 2002.

248.      Poulaki W. et al. “Acute intensive insulin therapy exacerbates diabetic blood-retinal barrier breakdown via hypoxia-inducible factor-1a and VEGF.”Journal of Clinical Investigation. Volume 109, Number 6, Pages 805–815. March 15, 2002.

249.      Colagiuri S, et al. “Are Lower Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels at Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Associated With Improved Outcomes?” Diabetes Care. Volume 25, Pages 1410-1417, 2002

250.      Stratton IM, et al. “Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study.” British Medical Journal. Volume 321, Number 7258, Pages 405–412. August 12, 2000.

251.      Adler AI, et al. “Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study.” British Medical Journal. Volume 321, Number 7258, Pages 412–419. August 12, 2000.

252.      Yamamoto T, et al. “Clinical efficacy of insulin-like growth factor-1 in a patient with autoantibodies to insulin receptors: a case report.” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 65-69. July 2000,

253.      Retnakaran R, et al. “Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Versus Multiple Daily Injections.” Diabetes Care. Volume 27, Number 11, Pages 2590-2596, 2004.

254.      Lecube A, et al. “Diabetes Is the Main Factor Accounting for the High Ferritin Levels Detected in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.” Diabetes Care. Volume 27, Number 11, Pages 2669-2675, 2004.

255.      Sheard NF, et al. “Dietary Carbohydrate (Amount and Type) in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes. A statement by the American Diabetes Association.” Diabetes Care. Volume 27, Pages 2266-2271, 2004.

256.      Taylor R, et al. “Direct Assessment of Liver Glycogen Storage by C13Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis after a Mixed Meal in Normal Subjects.” Journal of Clinical. Investigation. Volume 97, Pages 126–132. January 1996.

257.      Krakoff J, et al. “Comparison of the Effect of Plasma Glucose Concentrations on Microvascular Disease Between Pima Indian Youths and Adults.” Diabetes Care. Volume 24, Number 6, Pages 1023-1028, 2001.

258.      Kilpatrick ED and Robertson RP. “Differentiation Between Glucose-Induced Desensitization of Insulin Secretion and - Cell Exhaustion in the HIT-T15 Cell Line.” DIABETES, Volume 47, Number 4, Pages 606-611. April 1998

259.      Robertson RP, et al. “Glucose Toxicity in Beta-Cells: Type 2 Diabetes, Good Radicals Gone Bad, and the Glutathione Connection.” DIABETES. Volume 52, Number 3, Pages 581-587, 2003.

260.      Krishnan S, et al. “Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Black Women.” Archives of Internal Medicine. Volume 167 Number 21, November 26, 2007.

261.      Parillo M, et al. “A high-monounsaturated-fat/low-carbohydrate diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.”Metabolism. Volume 41, Number 12, Pages 373-8. December 1992.

262.      Colman PG, et al. “Position Statement: New classification and criteria for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.” Medical Journal of Australia. Volume 170, Pages 375-378. 1999.

263.      Brand-Miller JC. “Editorial: Postprandial glycemia, glycemic index, and the prevention of type 2 diabetes.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume. 80, Number. 2, Pages 243-244, August 2004.

264.      Bazzano LA, et al. “Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes by Diet and Lifestyle Modification.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Volume 24, Number 5, Pages 310–319. 2005.

265.      Villegas R, et al. “Prospective Study of Dietary Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-aged Chinese Women.” Archives of Internal Medicine.. Volume 167 Number 21, Pages 2310-2316. November 26, 2007.

266.      Klein S. “The case of visceral fat: argument for the defense.” Journal of Clinical. Investigation. Volume 113, Number 11, Pages 1530–1532. June 1, 2004.

267.      Nielsen S, et al. “Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity.” Journal of Clinical. Investigation. Volume 113, Number 11, Pages 1582–1588. June 1, 2004.

268.      Haffner SM. “The Importance of Hyperglycemia in the Nonfasting State to the Development of Cardiovascular Disease.” Endocrine Reviews. Volume 19, Number 5, Pages 583–592.

269.      Dorman JS, et al. “Type 1 diabetes in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes: the tip of an autoimmune iceberg?” Pediatric Diabetes, Volume 1, Number 1, Pages. 17-22. March 2000.

270.      Boyd AE, 3rd and Moss LG. “When Sugar Is Not So Sweet: Glucose Toxicity.” Journal of Clinical. Investigation. Volume 92, Page 2. July 1993.

271.      Hirano T and Adachi M. “Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Therapy for Type B Insulin Resistance.” Annals of Internal Medicine. Volume 127, Issue 3, Pages 245-246. August 1997.\

272.      Cavaghan MK, et al. “Interactions between insulin resistance and insulin secretion in the development of glucose intolerance.” Journal of  Clinical Investigation. Volume 106, Number 3, Pages 329–333. August 1, 2000.

273.      King DE, et al. “C-Reactive Protein and Glycemic Control in Adults With Diabetes.” Diabetes Care. Volume 26, Number 5. Pages 1535–1539, 2003.

274.      Skyler JS. “Insulin therapy in type II Diabetes: Who needs it, how much of it, and for how long?” Postgraduate Medicine Online. Volume 101, Number 2. February 1997.

275.      Peyrot M, et al. “Resistance to Insulin Therapy Among Patients and Providers. Results of the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) study.” Diabetes Care. Volume 28, Pages 2673-2679, 2005.

276.      Wellen KE and Hotamisligil GS. “Inflammation, stress, and diabetes.”Journal of  Clinical Investigation. Volume 115, Number 5, Pages1111–1119. May 2, 2005.

277.      The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. “Intensive Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin on Inflammation and Coagulation in Participants With Impaired Glucose Tolerance.” Diabetes. Volume 54, Number 5, Pages 1566-1572. December 15, 2005.

278.      Hundal RS, et al. “Mechanism by which high-dose aspirin improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.” Journal of Clinical Investigation. Volume 109, Number 10, Pages 1321–1326. May 15, 2002.

279.      Rappaport J and Fonseca V. “Case-Based Study: From Prediabetes to Complications—Opportunities for Prevention.” Peer-reviewed Open Accessed (PLOS) Medicine. Volume 2, Issue 2, Page e40. February 2005.

280.      Shuldiner AR and McLenithan JC. “Genes and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes: more than just the Randle cycle all over again.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Volume 114, Number 10, Pages 1414–1417. November 15, 2004.

281.      Liu,KS, et al. “Insulin-related genes expressed in human placenta from normal and diabetic pregnancies.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. Volume 82, Number 11, Pages 3868–3870. June 1985.

282.      Silverman BL et al. “Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment. The Northwestern University Diabetes in Pregnancy Center.” Diabetes Care, Volume 21, Supplement 2, Pages B142-9. August 1998.

283.      Hull RL, et al. “Oophorectomy Promotes Islet Amyloid Formation in Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Transgenic Mice.” DIABETES, Volume 50, Supplement 1, Pages S184-S185.  February 2001.

284.      Kahn SE. “CLINICAL REVIEW 135: The Importance of b-Cell Failure in the Development and Progression of Type 2 Diabetes.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Volume 86, Number 9, Pages 4047–4058. 2001.

285.      de Rekeneire N, et al. “Diabetes, Hyperglycemia, and inflammation in Older Individuals. The Health, Aging and Body Composition study.” Diabetes Care. Volume 29,Number 8, Pages 1902-1908. 2006.

286.      Parappil A, et al. “Diagnostic criteria for diabetes revisited: making use of combined criteria.” BMC Endocrine Disorders. Volume 2, Number 1. 2002.

287.      Sheard NF, et al. “Dietary Carbohydrate (Amount and Type) in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes. A statement by the American Diabetes Association.” Diabetes Care. Volume 27, Number 9, Pages 2266-2271. 2004.

288.      Resnick HE, et al. “Differential Effects of BMI on Diabetes Risk Among Black and White Americans.” Diabetes Care. Volume 21, Number 11, Pages 1828–1835.  November 1998.

289.      Sargrad KR, et al. “Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Volume 105, Number 4, Pages 573-80. April 2005.

290.      Omi H, et al. “Participation of high glucose concentrations in neutrophil adhesion and surface expression of adhesion molecules on cultured human endothelial cells: effect of antidiabetic medicines.” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. Volume16, Number 3, Pages 201-8. May-June 2002.

291.      Allick G, et al.  “A Low-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet Improves Glucoregulation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Reducing Postabsorptive Glycogenolysis.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism . Volume 89, Number 12, Pages 6193-6197.  2004.;89/12/6193

292.      Ferrannini E, et al. “Effect of Fatty Acids on Glucose Production and Utilization in Man.” Journal of Clinical Investigation. Volume 72, Pages 1737-1747. November 1983.

293.      Abdul-Rahman M, et al. “A High-Fat Diet in Obese Patients Induces Weight Loss, Leads to Improved Insulin Resistance, and Lowers Systolic Blood Pressure Despite Marked Increase in Dietary Sodium Intake.” Endocrine Practice. Abstract-Obesity #201. Volume12, Supplement 2, Page 50. 2006.

294.      Manning PJ, et al. “Changes in Circulating Postprandial Proinflammatory Cytokine Concentrations in Diet-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes and the Effect of Ingested Fat.” Diabetes Care. Volume 27, Pages 2509-2511. 2004.

295.      Hargrove RL, et al. “Low Fat and High Monounsaturated Fat Diets Decrease Human Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidative Susceptibility In Vitro.” Journal of Nutrition. Volume 131, Pages 1758-1763. 2001.

296.      The American College of Endocrinology Task Force on Inpatient Diabetes and Metabolic Control.” American College of Endocrinology Position Statement on Inpatient Diabetes and Metabolic Control.” ENDOCRINE PRACTICE. Volume 10, Number 1, Pages 77-82. January/February 2004.

297.      Xuan S, et al. “Defective insulin secretion in pancreatic ß cells lacking type 1 IGF receptor.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Volume 110, Number 7, Pages 1011-1019. 2002.

298.      THE DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM RESEARCH GROUP. “Lipid, Lipoproteins, C-Reactive Protein, and Hemostatic Factors at Baseline in the Diabetes Prevention Program.” Diabetes Care. Volume 28, Number 10, Pages 2472–2479.  October 2005.

299.      Steinberg HO, et al. “Obesity/Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Endothelial Dysfunction.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Volume 97, Number 11, Pages 2601-2610. June 1996,

300.      Wright, Jr. E, et al. “Oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: the role of fasting and postprandial glycaemia.” International Journal of Clinical Practice. Volume 60, Number 3, Pages 308–314. March 2006.

301.      Poitout V and Robertson RP. “Minireview: Secondary ß-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes—A Convergence of Glucotoxicity and Lipotoxicity.”Endocrinology. Volume 143, Number 2, Pages 339-342. 2002.

302.      Del Guerra S, et al. “Functional and Molecular Defects of Pancreatic Islets in Human Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes. Volume 54, Number 3, Pages 727-735.  March 2005.

303.      Leibowitz G, et al. “Glucose-Regulated Proinsulin Gene Expression Is Required for Adequate Insulin Production during Chronic Glucose Exposure.” Endocrinology. Volume 143, Number 9, Pages 3214-3220. September 2002.

304.      Trucco M. “Regeneration of the pancreatic ß cell.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Volume 115, Number 1, Pages 5-12. January 3, 2005.

305.      Leibiger, B, et al. “Cell Biology: Short-term regulation of insulin gene transcription by glucose.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. Volume 95, Number 16, Pages 9307–9312. August 4, 1998.

306.      Parker B, et al. “Effect of a High-Protein, High–Monounsaturated Fat Weight Loss Diet on Glycemic Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes.”Diabetes Care. Volume 25, Number 3, Pages 425-430. March 2002.

307.      Nielsen JV, et al. “A low-carbohydrate diet may prevent end-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes. A case report.” Nutrition & Metabolism (Lond). Volume 3, Number 23.  June 14, 2006.

308.      Miyashita T, et al. “Beneficial effect of low carbohydrate in low calorie diets on visceral fat reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with obesity.” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Volume 65, Number 3, Pages 235-41. September 2004.

309.      Desai MY. Et al. “Association of Body Mass Index, Metabolic Syndrome, and Leukocyte Count.” American Journal of Cardiology. Volume 97, Issue 6, Pages 835-838. March 15, 2006,

310.      Reaven GM. Syndrome X: A Short History.” The Ochsner Journal. Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 124–125. Summer 2001.

311.      Braga-Basaria M, et al. “Metabolic Syndrome in Men With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Long-Term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy.” Journal of Clinical Oncology. Volume 24, Number 24, Pages 3979-3983. August 20, 2006.

312.      Hickey JT, et al. “Clinical Use of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet to Treat the Dyslipidemia of the Metabolic Syndrome.” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Volume 1, Number 3, Pages 227-232. September 1, 2003.

313.      Takano T, et al. “Influences of Statins on Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. Volume 13, Number 2, Pages 95-100. 2006.

314.      Laaksonen DE, et al. “Changes in abdominal subcutaneous fat water content with rapid weight loss and long-term weight maintenance in abdominally obese men and women.” International Journal of Obesity. Volume 27, Pages 677–683. 2003.

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